Conscious: Awake; aware and knowing that something exists.
Conscientious: “Governed by or conforming to the dictates of conscience”; concerned with doing something correctly.
Before I can be conscientious about taking a specific action, I need to be conscious of the possibility. Here’s an example: Before I can be conscientious about recycling batteries, I need to know (be aware) that there are special rules in place for that. I can’t be concerned with following the rules until I know they exist.
First, I need to be conscious of the recycling statutes in my community.
Then, I need to be conscientious about adhering to those statutes.